Madder is one of the oldest dyestuffs. It is used to produce turkey reds, mulberry, orange-red, terracotta, and in combination with other dyes to give crimson, purple, rust, browns, and near blacks. Madder is cultivated and grows wild throughout India, south east Asia, Turkey, Europe, south China, parts of Africa, Australia and Japan. Madder is a complex dyestuff containing multiple colourants. By manipulating mordanting, pH, and temperature many shades can be obtained.